The White Hats Are Coming…

White supremacist flyers were found in Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx.  Under the heading, “White Excellence,” the flyers called on white men to “defend your heritage” – of lynching and racial violence against Black people? – and stop Blacks and the “spread of radical Islam.”

As a sign of white solidarity, the writers of the flyers requested that white people wear a white hat or shirt every Wednesday while eating or drinking on Katonah Avenue to “show you’re here.”  They concluded that there would be [Ku Klux Klan?] meetings and a demonstration on November 14, 2018.

It looks like the white hats have been emboldened by the Chief Red Hat who currently occupies the White House.

The white hats are not simply coming – they are already here.  They have always been with us in AmeriKKKa.  They stopped wearing white robes in public – now they’ll be wearing white shirts in public on Wednesdays.  (Some had donned black robes after they put their white robes in the closet.)  Now, with a “[white] nationalist” occupying the White House, these minions of racism publicly display their true colors – just the white in the red, white, and blue.  God bless [white] America!

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On this day in American history, November 7, 1931 — Fisk University Dean and Student Die In Car Wreck After Denied Hospital Care Due to Race

On November 7, 1931, Dean Juliette Derricotte of Fisk University in Nashville was driving three students to her parents’ home in Atlanta when a Model T driven by an older white man suddenly swerved and struck Ms. Derricotte’s car, overturning it into a ditch. The white driver stopped to yell at the black occupants of Ms. Derricotte’s car for damaging his own vehicle, then left the scene. Nearby Hamilton Memorial Hospital in Dalton, Georgia, did not admit African American patients, so Ms. Derricotte and the three students were treated by a white doctor at his office in Dalton and then taken to the home of an African American woman to recuperate – though Ms. Derricotte and one of the students, Nina Johnson, were critically injured.

Six hours after the accident, one of the less seriously injured students was able to reach a Chattanooga hospital by phone, and arrangements were made to transport Ms. Derricotte and Ms. Johnson the 35 miles to that facility. However, it was too late: Ms. Derricotte died on her way to the hospital, at age 34, and Ms. Johnson died the next day.

The Committee on Interracial Cooperation opened an investigation into the incident, and Walter White, secretary of the New York-based NAACP, traveled south in December 1931 to learn more. He later concluded, “The barbarity of race segregation in the South is shown in all its brutal ugliness by the willingness to let cultured, respected, and leading colored women die for lack of hospital facilities which are available to any white person no matter how low in social scale.”

“The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) is proud to present A History of Racial Injustice – 2018 Calendar.  America’s history of racial inequality continues to undermine fair treatment, equal justice, and opportunity for many Americans.  The genocide of Native people, the legacy of slavery and racial terror, and the legally supported abuse of racial minorities are not well understood.  EJI believes that a deeper engagement with our nation’s history of racial injustice is important to addressing present-day questions of social justice and equality.

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On this day in American history, November 7, 1955 — U.S. Supreme Court Affirms Ruling Outlawing Racial Segregation in Public Recreational Facilities

In Mayor and City Council of Baltimore v. Dawson, African Americans living in Baltimore, Maryland, sued the city’s mayor and city council for maintaining racially segregated, publicly-funded beaches and parks. A federal district court initially dismissed the complaint, holding that the “separate but equal” doctrine established in 1896 by the United States Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson permitted racial segregation as long as the facilities or services involved were substantially equal between races.

On March 14, 1955, the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit overturned that ruling, rejecting the city’s argument that racial segregation was justified as a means of ensuring order and avoiding racial conflict. In its decision, the Fourth Circuit held that “segregation cannot be justified as a means to preserve the public peace merely because the tangible facilities furnished to one race are equal to those furnished by the other.” In the view of the court, legal support for the doctrine of “separate but equal” had been swept away by recent landmark Supreme Court rulings like Brown v. Board of Education, decided the previous year.

The City of Baltimore appealed the ruling to the Supreme Court. On November 7, 1955, the Court affirmed the Fourth Circuit’s decision in a per curiam order endorsing the lower court’s rejection of segregation in public recreational facilities and adopting its decision as national, binding precedent.

“The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) is proud to present A History of Racial Injustice – 2018 Calendar.  America’s history of racial inequality continues to undermine fair treatment, equal justice, and opportunity for many Americans.  The genocide of Native people, the legacy of slavery and racial terror, and the legally supported abuse of racial minorities are not well understood.  EJI believes that a deeper engagement with our nation’s history of racial injustice is important to addressing present-day questions of social justice and equality.

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Every Election Has Been Important in My Lifetime

Political pundits are proclaiming that this is the most important election of our lifetime.  Every election has been important in my lifetime.  As a child of the ‘60s, as a kid, I heard the stories of Black people being killed because they wanted to vote or they in fact voted, and even White people helping Black people to vote were killed, threatened with violence, or beaten.  This is in my lifetime, not a distant, past America.  Today, the vote is as important as it was in 1964, 1920, and 1870. Maybe more so.  Long before Trump and his politics of fear and racism, the color red associated with today’s Republican Party was real blood, the blood of people, mostly Black people, who took seriously the Constitution and all that jazz about creating a perfect Union.  They knew – well, they hoped – that America could be better, that she didn’t have to succumb to fear of her own People, that voting booths did not have to be killing fields, but the avenues for civic engagement, for participatory “democracy.”  It wasn’t so long ago when I was a child watching a cartoon about classical democracy, about animals running for the highest elected office, “King of the Jungle.”  The cartoon stressed the importance of even one vote, dramatizing it by the election being a dead time, with one animal having not voted.  The two candidates canvassed the jungle to find him to convince it to vote for one or the other.  So vote.  Your vote does matter.  If it didn’t, then certain forces would not be trying to suppress or diminish it.

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On this day in American History, November 6, 1909 — Colored Alabamian Reports Murder of Black Wagon Driver in Alabama

In October 1909, a black wagon driver “who did not drive as far to the right as a white man thought he should” was shot dead in Montgomery, Alabama. According to an article in Colored Alabamian magazine, the white man avoided punishment “as if he had only shot a common dog.”

The article asserted that white people’s evasion of capital punishment was not a rare occurrence in the city. Weeks after the death of the wagon driver, “[a] Negro walked into a Loan office where he was somewhat involved. His statement was not satisfactory to the white men who followed him into the street and shot him to death.”

The report described the story as a common narrative in the community. “White men who shoot and kill Negroes are not adjudged guilty of murder by the law.” The magazine called for white officials to bring all murderers, regardless of color, to the “bar of justice and punished to the fullest extent of the law.”

“The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) is proud to present A History of Racial Injustice – 2018 Calendar.  America’s history of racial inequality continues to undermine fair treatment, equal justice, and opportunity for many Americans.  The genocide of Native people, the legacy of slavery and racial terror, and the legally supported abuse of racial minorities are not well understood.  EJI believes that a deeper engagement with our nation’s history of racial injustice is important to addressing present-day questions of social justice and equality.

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On this day in American history — October 15, 1883 United States Supreme Court Strikes Down Civil Rights Act of 1875

In 1875, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which forbade racial discrimination in access to public accommodations and facilities. Over the ensuing years, a number of African Americans sued businesses that denied them access to segregated facilities. In 1883, the Supreme Court heard five of those cases, and, on October 15, 1883, struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in an 8-1 decision known as the Civil Rights Cases.

In the Civil Rights Cases, the Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment, which was cited as the constitutional authorization for the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and mandates “equal protection of the laws,” does not apply to private entities. According to the Court, the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment applied only to actions taken by state governments or laws passed by state governments, and did not give Congress the power to regulate the actions of private entities. Writing for the majority less than twenty years after ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment, Justice Joseph Bradley questioned the necessity and appropriateness of laws aimed at protecting black people from discrimination:

“When a man has emerged from slavery, and, by the aid of beneficent legislation, has shaken off the inseparable concomitants of that state, there must be some stage in the progress of his elevation when he takes the rank of a mere citizen and ceases to be the special favorite of the laws, and when his rights as a citizen or a man are to be protected in the ordinary modes by which other men’s rights are protected.”

The Supreme Court’s decision in the Civil Rights Cases eliminated the only federal law that prohibited racial discrimination by individuals or private businesses, and left African Americans who were victims of private discrimination to seek legal recourse in unsympathetic state courts. Racial discrimination in housing, restaurants, hotels, theaters, and employment, became increasingly entrenched and persisted for generations. It would take more than eighty years for the federal government to outlaw discrimination with the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

“The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) is proud to present A History of Racial Injustice – 2018 Calendar.  America’s history of racial inequality continues to undermine fair treatment, equal justice, and opportunity for many Americans.  The genocide of Native people, the legacy of slavery and racial terror, and the legally supported abuse of racial minorities are not well understood.  EJI believes that a deeper engagement with our nation’s history of racial injustice is important to addressing present-day questions of social justice and equality.

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On this day in American history, October 14, 1958 — District of Columbia Bar Association Votes to Accept Black Lawyers for First Time

Attorneys in the District of Columbia were not required to belong to a professional bar association in the 1950s, but the District maintained several voluntary bar associations that lawyers could choose to join. The Bar Association of the District of Columbia became known as the “white bar,” while the Washington Bar Association served as the “black bar.” Washington has a long history of racial separation and in the Jim Crow era, mandatory segregation laws remained in force. While black and white lawyers practiced in the same courtrooms, most other facilities in the District remained separated by race and the bar associations furthered that custom. Even Washington’s law library, located within a federal courthouse, refused to admit African American attorneys.

The Bar Association of the District of Columbia finally desegregated due in a large part to the efforts of Charles S. Rhyne, a white man who ran for president of the organization on a pledge to desegregate. Though he faced intensely hostile reactions from many of his colleagues, Rhyne eventually was able to amend the bar association’s constitution and remove the race-based membership criteria. Several years later, on October 14, 1958, the Bar Association of the District Columbia voted to integrate and begin accepting African American members. The “black” Washington Bar Association nevertheless opted to continue operation, open to all but with a focus on the needs and concerns of black lawyers in Washington. Both associations still exist today.

“The Equal Justice Initiative (EJI) is proud to present A History of Racial Injustice – 2018 Calendar.  America’s history of racial inequality continues to undermine fair treatment, equal justice, and opportunity for many Americans.  The genocide of Native people, the legacy of slavery and racial terror, and the legally supported abuse of racial minorities are not well understood.  EJI believes that a deeper engagement with our nation’s history of racial injustice is important to addressing present-day questions of social justice and equality.

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